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http://www.strahlentelex.de/Yablokov_Chernobyl_book.pdf

The following intro was written by Alexei Yablokov & is taken directly from his chapter, (below). It is included here, (we added subheads for ranking).

http://www.strahlentelex.de/Yablokov_Chernobyl_book.pdf

The following intro was written by Alexei Yablokov & is taken directly from his chapter, (below). It is included here, (we added subjeads for ranking).

http://www.strahlentelex.de/Yablokov_Chernobyl_book.pdf

The following intro was written by Alexei Yablokov & is taken directly from his chapter, (below). It is included here, (we added subheads for ranking).

Fauna

Chernobyl Radiological Impact on Fauna

The radioactive shock when the Chernobyl reactor exploded in 1986 combined with chronic low-dose contamination has resulted in morphologic, physiologic, and genetic disorders in every animal species that has been studied ...mammals, birds, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates.

Chernobyl populations exhibit morphological deformities

These populations exhibit a wide variety of morphological deformities not found in other populations. Despite reports of a “healthy” environment in proximity to Chernobyl for rare species of birds and mammals, the presence of such wildlife is likely the result of immigration and not from locally sustained populations.

Chernobyl populations of contaminated animal species: birds, mammals, amphibians, fish

Twenty-three years after the catastrophe levels of incorporated radionuclides remain dangerously high for mammals, birds, amphibians, and fish in some areas of Europe. Mutation rates in animal populations in contaminated territories are significantly higher and there is transgenerational genomic instability in animal populations, manifested in adverse cellular and systemic effects.

Significant increases in morbidity and mortality that bear a striking resemblance to changes in the health of humans

Long-term observations of wild and experimental animal populations in heavily contaminated areas show significant increases in morbidity and mortality that bear a striking resemblance to changes in the health of humans — increased occurrence of tumor and immunodeficiencies, decreased life expectancy, early aging, changes in blood and the circulatory system, malformations, and other factors that compromise health.

Flora

Chernobyl Radiological Impact on Flora

Plants and mushrooms accumulate the Chernobyl radionuclides at a level that depends upon the soil, the climate, the particular biosphere, the season, spotty radioactive contamination, and the particular species and populations (subspecies, cultivars), etc.

Chernobyl levels of radionuclide accumulation in different species of plants includes: Sr-90, Am-241, Cs-137, Ce-144, Pu-238, Pu-239 & Pu-240

Each radionuclide has its own accumulation characteristics (e. g., levels of accumulation for Sr-90 are much higher than for Cs-137, and a thousand times less than that for Ce-144).

Coefficients of accumulation and transition ratios vary so much in time and space that it is difficult, if not impossible, to predict the actual levels of Cs-137, Sr-90, Pu-238, Pu239, Pu-240, and Am-241 at each place and time and for each individual plant or fungus.

Chernobyl irradiation causes structural anomalies & tumor-like changes in plant species

Chernobyl irradiation has caused structural anomalies and tumorlike changes in many plant species. Unique pathologic complexes are seen in the Chernobyl zone, such as a high percentage of anomalous pollen grains and spores.

Chernobyl irradiation leads to genetic disorders

Chernobyl’s irradiation has led to genetic disorders, sometimes continuing for many years, and it appears that it has awakened genes that have been silent over a long evolutionary time.

Microbial Biota

Chernobyl Radioactive Impact on Microbial Biota

Of the few microorganisms studied, all underwent rapid changes in areas heavily contaminated by Chernobyl. Organisms such as tuberculosis bacilli; hepatitis, herpes, and tobacco mosaic viruses; cytomegalovirus; soil micromycetes and bacteria were activated in various ways.

Profound changes in micobial biota do not bode well for health & survival of other species

The ultimate long-term consequences for the Chernobyl microbiologic biota may be worse than what we know today. Compared to humans and other mammals, the profound changes that take place among these small live organisms with rapid reproductive turnover do not bode well for the health and survival of other species.

Up to 3 kg of the mass of an adult human body is made up of bacteria, viruses & micro-fungi

One gram of soil contains some 2,500,000,000 microorganisms (bacteria, micro-fungi, and protozoa). Up to 3 kg of the mass of an adult human body is made up of bacteria, viruses, and micro-fungi. In spite of the fact that these represent such important and fundamentally live ecosystems there are only scarce data on the various microbiological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe.

Increased morbidity from infectious diseases may be from increased virulence of microbial populations from Chernobyl irradiation

Several incidences of increased morbidity owing to certain infectious diseases may be due to increased virulence of microbial populations as a result of Chernobyl irradiation.


*Nuclear reactor fallout & waste mutates bacteria, viruses, ova, sperm, foetus & dna to cause mutations & new & mysterious diseases in animals, plants, microbial biota & people


Photographs of Paul Fusco, from his book: Chernobyl Legacy

Photographs of Paul Fusco, from his book: Chernobyl Legacy

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http://www.strahlentelex.de/Yablokov_Chernobyl_book.pdf

Published by New York Academy of Sciences

Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People & the Environment

Written by Alexey V. Yablokov, Vassily B. Nesterenko & Alexey V. Nesterenko

Edited by Janette Sherman-Nevinger

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences – Vol 1181

Free PDF Download of Chernobyl Book  



Russians at it again

(Webmaster's note: I read published abstracts of scientific research studies, written by Chernobyl scientists, and learned exposure to radionuclides causes bacteria and viruses to mutate, causing new and mysterious diseases. It took you less than ten seconds to read the previous sentence …now, you know more than all the nuclear apologist bad science perps will ever admit. )



http://www.strahlentelex.de/Yablokov_Chernobyl_book.pdf

excerpt ~ Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment

chapter 11

Chernobyl’s Radioactive Impact on Microbial Biota

by Alexey v. Yablokov

Abstract: Of the few microorganisms that have been studied, all underwent rapid changes in the areas heavily contaminated by Chernobyl. Organisms such as tuberculosis bacilli; hepatitis, herpes, and tobacco mosaic viruses; cytomegalovirus; and soil micromycetes and bacteria were activated in various ways. The ultimate long-term consequences for the Chernobyl microbiologic biota may be worse than what we know today. Compared to humans and other mammals, the profound changes that take place among these small live organisms with rapid reproductive turnover do not bode well for the health and survival of other species.

One gram of soil contains some 2,500,000,000 microorganisms (bacteria, micro-fungi, and protozoa). Up to 3 kg of the mass of an adult human body is made up of bacteria, viruses, and micro-fungi. In spite of the fact that these represent such important and fundamentally live ecosystems there are only scarce data on the various microbiological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe.

Several incidences of increased morbidity owing to certain infectious diseases may be due to increased virulence of microbial populations as a result of Chernobyl irradiation. … … …

All microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa) and microbiological communities as a whole undergo rapid changes after any additional irradiation. The mechanism of such changes is well known: inclusion and increase in the frequency of mutations by natural selection and preservation of beneficial novel genes that for whatever reason appear more viable under the new conditions. This micro-evolutionary mechanism has been activated in all radioactively contaminated areas and leads to activation of old and the occurrence of new forms of viruses and bacteria.

All but a few microorganisms that have been studied in Chernobyl-affected territories underwent rapid changes in heavily contaminated areas.

Our contemporary knowledge is too limited to understand even the main consequences of the inevitable radioactive-induced genetic changes among the myriad of viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and fungi that inhabit the intestines, lungs, blood, organs, and cells of human beings.

The strong association between carcinogenesis and viruses (papilloma virus, hepatitis virus, Helicobacter pylori, Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi’s sarcoma, and herpes virus) provides another reason why the cancer rate increased in areas contaminated by Chernobyl irradiation (for a review, see Sreelekha et al., 2003).

Not only cancer, but also many other illnesses are connected with viruses and bacteria. Radiologically induced pathologic changes in the microflora in humans can increase susceptibility to infections, inflammatory diseases of bacterial and viral origin (influenza, chronic intestinal diseases, pyelonephritis, cystitis, vaginitis, endocolitis, asthma, dermatitis, and ischemia), and various pathologies of pregnancy. The long-term consequences for microbial biota may be worse than what we understand today.



This micro-evolutionary mechanism has been activated in virtually all radioactively contaminated areas and leads to activation of old and the occurrence of new forms of viruses and bacteria.



[Editor's note:} Mainstream science, the nuclear energy industry and their apologists remain dumbfounded and swear on the bible there is more danger from natural radiation in eating bananas or potato chips or taking a walk in the park than eating or breathing in manmade ionizing fallout …from Fukushima or daily nuclear energy industry legal discharges, or accidents like Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima.


Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment, here

Book - Published by New York Academy of Sciences, Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment was written by scientists who used health data from 1986 to 2004; edited by Janet Sherman.


Chapter 11 – Chernobyl’s Radioactive Impact on Microbial Biota

Alexey V. Yablokov

[Abstract] Of the few microorganisms that have been studied, all underwent rapid changes in the areas heavily contaminated by Chernobyl. Organisms such as tuberculosis bacilli; hepatitis, herpes, and tobacco mosaic viruses; cytomegalovirus; and soil micromycetes and bacteria were activated in various ways. The ultimate long-term consequences for the Chernobyl microbiologic biota may be worse than what we know today. Compared to humans and other mammals, the profound changes that take place among these small live organisms with rapid reproductive turnover do not bode well for the health and survival of other species.


One gram of soil contains some 2,500,000,000 microorganisms (bacteria, microfungi, and protozoa). Up to 3 kg of the mass of an adult human body is made up of bacteria, viruses, and microfungi. In spite of the fact that these represent such important and fundamentally live ecosystems there are only scarce data on the various microbiological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe.

Several incidences of increased morbidity owing to certain infectious diseases may be due to increased virulence of microbial populations as a result of Chernobyl irradiation.

1.-Soon after the catastrophe studies observed activation of retroviruses (Kavsan et al., 1992).

2.-There is evidence of increased susceptibility to Pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus in children whose immune systems were suppressed in the contaminated territories of Novozybkov District, Bryansk Province (Lysenko et al., 1996).

3.-Tuberculosis became more virulent in the more contaminated areas of Belarus (Chernetsky and Osynovsky, 1993; Belookaya, 1993; Borschevsky et al., 1996). Address for correspondence: (Editor’s note: omitted.)

4.-In some heavily contaminated areas of Belarus and Russia there was a markedly higher level of cryptosporidium infestation (Lavdovskaya et al., 1996).

5.-From 1993 to 1997 the hepatitis viruses B, C, D, and G became noticeably activated in the heavily contaminated areas of Belarus (Zhavoronok et al., 1998 a, b).

6.-Herpes viruses were activated in the heavily contaminated territories of Belarus 6 to 7 years after the catastrophe (Matveev, 1993; Matveev et al., 1995; Voropaev et al., 1996).

7.-Activation of cytomegalovirus was found in the heavily contaminated districts of Gomel and Mogilev provinces, Belarus (Matveev, 1993).

8.-Prevalence of Pneumocystis was noticeably higher in the heavily contaminated territories of Bryansk Province (Lavdovskaya et al., 1996).

9.-The prevalence and severity of Gruby’s disease (ringworm), caused by the fungus microsporia Microsporum sp., was significantly higher in the heavily contaminated areas of Bryansk Province (Rudnitsky et al., 2003).

10.-The number of saprophytic bacteria in Belarussian sod-podzolic soils is at maximum with radioactivity levels of 15 Ci/km2 or less and minimal in areas 281 282 Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences with up to 40 Ci/km2 (Zymenko et al., 1995).

11.-There is a wide range of radionuclide bioaccumulations in soil micromycetes. The accumulation factor of Cs-137 in Stemphylium (family Dematiaceae) is 348 and in Verticillium (family Muctdinaceae) 28 (Zymenko et al., 1995).

12.-Since the catastrophe, the prevalence of black microfungi has dramatically increased in contaminated soil surrounding Chernobyl (Zhdanova et al., 1991, 1994).

13.-Among soil bacteria that most actively accumulate Cs-137 are Agrobacterium sp. (accumulation factor 587), Enterobacter sp. (60–288), and Klebsiella sp. (256; Zymenko et al., 1995).

14.-In all soil samples from the 10-km Chernobyl zone the abundance of soil bacteria (nitrifying, sulfate-reducing, nitrogen-fixing, and cellulose-fermenting bacteria, and heterotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria) was reduced by up to two orders of magnitude as compared to control areas (Romanovskaya et al., 1998).

15.-In contaminated areas several new variants of tobacco mosaic virus appeared that affect plants other than Solanaceous species, and their virulence is most likely correlated with the level of radioactive contamination in the areas. Infection of tobacco plants with tobacco mosaic virus and oilseed rape mosaic virus was shown to induce a threefold increase in homologous DNA recombination in non-infected tissues (Boyko et al., 2007; Kovalchuk et al., 2003).

16.-All the strains of microfungi species that were studied (Alternaria alternata, Mucorhiemalis, and Paecilomyces lilacinus) from the heavily contaminated Chernobyl areas have aggregated growth of threadlike hyphae, whereas the same species from soil with low radionuclide contamination show normal growth. Only slowly growing Cladosporium cladosporioides has aggregated growth both in contaminated and TABLE 11.1. Characteristics of Oocysts of Coccidia (Eimeria cerna) in Voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) from Two Differently Contaminated Sites, Bryansk Province (Pel’gunov, 1996) Level of contamination 20μ R/h 180–220 ΜR/h Normal 94.5 76.6 Anomalous 06.3 Nonsporulated 5.2 12.2 lightly contaminated soils (Ivanova et al., 2006).

17.-Sharp reduction in the abundance of bifidus bacteria and the prevalence of microbes of the class Escherichia; in particular, a sharp increase in E. coli has been noted in the intestines of evacuee children living in Ukraine (Luk’yanova et al., 1995).

18.-In a long-term study (1954 to 1994—before and after the catastrophe) in Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia it was revealed that in areas with a high level of radioactive contamination (740–1,480 kBq/m2 and higher) in Bryansk, Mogilev, Gomel, Chernygov, Sumy, Kaluga, Oryol, Smolensk, and Kursk provinces, practically no cases of rabies in wild animals have been reported since the catastrophe (Adamovich, 1998). This suggests that the rabies virus has either disappeared or become inactivate.

19.-Rodents in the heavily contaminated territories of Belarus have been extensively invaded by coccids (obligate intracellular protozoan parasites from the phylum Apicomplexa; Sutchenya et al., 1995).

20.-There are fewer than normal, more anomalous, and no sporulated oocysts of coccidian Eimeria cerna in voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) in Bryansk Province (Table 11.1).

21.-Six years after the catastrophe a population of Eimeria cernae From Clethrionomys Glareolus living in heavily contaminated soil (up to 7.3 k Bq/kg of Cs-134, Cs-137, Sr-90, and Pu-106) in Kiev Province Yablokov: Radioactive Impact on Microbial Biota 283 had anomalous oocysts (Soshkin and Pel’gunov, 1994).

22. -There was a significant decline in the Shannon diversity index of infusoria species and a concomitant increase in their abundance in the Pripyat River mouth from 1986 to 1988 (Nebrat, 1992).

All microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa) and microbiological communities as a whole undergo rapid changes after any additional irradiation. The mechanism of such changes is well known: inclusion and increase in the frequency of mutations by natural selection and preservation of beneficial novel genes that for whatever reason appear more viable under the new conditions. This micro-evolutionary mechanism has been activated in all radioactively contaminated areas and leads to activation of old and the occurrence of new forms of viruses and bacteria. All but a few microorganisms that have been studied in Chernobyl-affected territories underwent rapid changes in heavily contaminated areas.

Our contemporary knowledge is too limited to understand even the main consequences of the inevitable radioactive-induced genetic changes among the myriad of viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and fungi that inhabit the intestines, lungs, blood, organs, and cells of human beings.

The strong association between carcinogenesis and viruses (papilloma virus, hepatitis virus, Helicobacter pylori, Epstein–Barr virus, Kaposi’s sarcoma, and herpes virus) provides another reason why the cancer rate increased in areas contaminated by Chernobyl irradiation (for a review, see Sreelekha et al., 2003).

Not only cancer, but also many other illnesses are connected with viruses and bacteria. Radiologically induced pathologic changes in the microflora in humans can increase susceptibility to infections, inflammatory diseases of bacterial and viral origin (influenza, chronic intestinal diseases, pyelonephritis, cystitis, vaginitis, endocolitis, asthma, dermatitis, and ischemia), and various pathologies of pregnancy. The long-term consequences for microbial biota may be worse than what we understand today .



Published by New York Academy of Sciences, Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment was written by scientists who used health data from 1986 to 2004; edited by Janet Sherman.

The Truth about Chernobyl

Chapter I. Chernobyl Contamination: An Overview — 1. Chernobyl Contamination through Time and Space — Chapter II. Consequences for Public Health — 2. Public Health Consequences: Methodological Problems — 3. General Morbidity, Impairment, and Disability — 4. Accelerated Aging — 5. Nonmalignant Diseases — 6. Oncological Diseases — 7. Mortality — Chapter III. Consequences for the Environment — 8. Atmospheric, Water & Soil Contamination — 9. Flora — 10. Fauna — 11. Microbial Biota — Chapter IV. Radiation Protection after the Catastrophe — 12. Radioactive Contamination of Food and People — 13. De-corporation of Radionuclides — 14. Protective Measures for Activities in Radioactively Contaminated Territories — 15. Consequences for Public Health & the Environment, 23 Years Later 

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http://www.strahlentelex.de/Yablokov_Chernobyl_book.pdf

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Species loss Affects of Chernobyl fallout on fauna (animals). Note, Fukushima fallout has been estimated at hundreds of times more than Chernobyl. At Chernobyl, one reactor exploded; at Fukushima, four reactors exploded (one was a nuclear detonation) and all had up to 30 years of spent fuel rods stored in waste pools at the top of each building.
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http://www.strahlentelex.de/Yablokov_Chernobyl_book.pdf

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bioaccumulation bioaccumulation


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Every nuclear reactor legally & illegally discharges tritium every day, plus leakage (here 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,)


Bioaccumulation

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Deadly Deception bioaccumulation .



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